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About this site


Your comments about PatagoniaWildflowers.org are welcome. You can contact me at Steven.K.Sullivan@PatagoniaWildfloers.org

This web site helps those of us with limited knowledge of botany to identify plants that are found outside of gardens. This help is provided by presenting you with small images of plants. You can use a number of search techniques to get to the images that are most likely the plant you are looking for. When you click on a plant image the program shows you links to plant descriptions and more plant images.

This site has many ways of searching for a plant. You can use these searches in any combination. Some searches eliminate some plants from consideration. Most searches give a "score" to each plant depending on how well the plant matches the search criteria. The plants with the highest score are displayed at the top of the results.

The display is divided into 2 regions. On the left, under Search Menus, are buttons that let you set the search criteria. The operation of these buttons is described below. The Search Results are displayed in the window where you see this text. Many images of plants can be displayed at one time. Below each image is a common name, a score and the scientific name. Click on any thumbnail image to see that plant's page where you will find links to additional on-line information about that plant.

google map

Location search

The Locatin Search is often the most important. Tell the program where the flowers were sighted so that the program can limit the search to flowers found near that location. Your location is initially set to near where your computer is located. Adjust the Google map by clicking on the "+" and "-" and dragging the map with the mouse until you are close to where the flowers were located. Then single-click to set the location of the flowers. A flower icon will appear (as in the photo to the right) to mark the selected location. Plants that have not been observed near this location are excluded from the search results. Plants that are more common at this location are given a higher score which causes them to be displayed closer to the top of the results list.

When the location search is active a location will appear below the map. The area covered by the program is from the top of Uruguay to the southern tip of South America.

Parks and Trails

Click this button to get a list of popular wildflower viewing locations. Clicking on any of these locations causes that location to be set (and the Observation Time is set to "Now"). Wildflowers that might be found at this location are displayed in the results window from most common to least common. Additional searches can now be applied to find flowers of a specific color or type.

Everywhere LocationButton

This button is for people who are interested in all of the plants the program knows about. Use this button to turn off all location searching.

Location Coordinates LocationButton

Click this button to enter a GPS coordinate in any common latitude-longitude format. The Google Map will the show that location and the elevation will appear after the Plant Elevation button. Plants growing near this location and elevation will be displayed in the Search Results.

Plant Elevation search ElevationButton

Usually, the correct elevation is found for you when you enter your location. Click this button to change the elevation where the plant was found. Elevation is divided into 333 meter increments. When you select an elevation, plants that do not grow near this elevation will not show up in the results. Plants that grow primarily at a different elevation are ranked further down the list.

Observation Time search DateButton

Setting an observation time is very important. Otherwise the program will show you flowers that are out of season. Click the Observation Time button to bring up a calendar. Select the week you observed (or will observe) the plant. You can also select "Now" which selects plants that are blooming now. "Now" is different than selecting the current date because a bookmarked link containing "Now" will always track the current date.

category menu

For plants that are identified primarily by their flowers this search acts like a bloom time search. But for plants that are identified by their fruit or other characteristics this search is an observation time search.

Basic Flower/Plant Category search ShapeButton

This button brings up a menu that lets you select between Wildflowers, Shrubs, Trees, Vines, Cactus, Grass-like plants, Fern-like plants, Moss-like plants, Lichen and Seaweed. Click on "All" to find all types of plants.

Flower Shape search PetalButton

petal menu

Click this button to search for flowers with a certain number of petals. The word "petals" is used colloquially. If the flower looks like it has six petals then that is used even if it turns out that the petal-like structures are not technically petals.

Count the number of petals even when the flowers are very small. This may require magnification or a macro setting on your camera. For flowers like daisies and sunflowers, count the ray petals. When this number is larger than six, use the "Many" category. Some flowers do not seem to have petals. In this case, use the "No Petals" category.

Count the petals even when the flower has an irregular shape like a violet. When the flower is a tube, trumpet or other strange shape look for clues on how petals may have joined to make the flower. Often there are lines or lobes that divide the flower into parts. Count these parts. An exception is for flowers that look like a pea flower. In this case use the "Pea Flower" category. When the petals are very irregular, use the "Irregular" category.

Flower Color search ColorButton petal menu

Click this button to get a palette of 9 colors. Pick the color that is closest to the color of the flower.

Leaf Arrangement search LeafButton

Click this button to select plants with one of the following leaf arrangements. Plants with Alternate leaf arrangement have a single leaf at each node. The leaves often alternate or spiral along the branch. Plants with Opposite leaf arrangement have two leaves at each node and these leaves are opposite each other. Plants with Basal leaf arrangement have most of their leaves at the base of the plant. Sometimes the leaves are connected underground or underwater but more often they form a ring or rosette around a main stalk. Plants with Whorled leaf arrangement have three or more leaves at each node. The diagrams show the leaf arrangement for simple leaves. When a plant has compound leaves where a number of leaflets join together to make a larger structure the leaf arrangement applies to how the largest structure of leaves attach to the plant.

Habitat search HabitatButton

Click this button to specify the habitat where you found the plant. You can select from 15 different habitats. The search will be limited to plants found in the specified habitat.

Plant Name Name Button

Enter a plant name in this text field. You can enter a common name, scientific name, genus name or family plant name. Names can be mixed and, to some extent, misspelled. After entering a name you will see a Clear button and the name you entered will appear in the text field. You can use the Clear button to cancel the name search.

The plant name search can be combined with other search parameters. For example, you can search for yellow thistles by selecting a yellow flower color and entering "thistle" for the plant name.

If you enter a genus name plants that are not in the genus will be excluded. If you enter a plant family name plants that are not in the family will be excluded.

Plants often have many common names. In the Search Results only one common name is shown. However, you can see other common names by clicking on the image (to get to the plant's page) and placing the mouse over the plant name area. The Plant Name Search looks at all of the common names.

In theory each plant has a single scientific name. However, most plants have multiple names and the closer one looks the more names one finds. The scientific names used in this program are binomial. A binomial name such as Achillea millefolium refers to all variations and subspecies.

Family→Genus→Species Show Families Button

Use this button to search for a plant using plant families and genera. First, enter the location of the plant and the date the plant was observed to make a list of possible plants. Then press the Family→Genus→Species button. The search results will now show one photo for each major plant family and a photo for a few categories such as ferns, aquatic plants and trees. The photos are taken from local plants that are representative of the family or category and are labeled with both the scientific family name and a common name. Clicking on a photo will cause the genera in that family or category to be displayed. The genera names are in red. Again, there is one representative photo for each genus. When only one local species is in a genus the photo will be the species photo. Clicking on a genus photo causes all of the local species in that genus to be displayed. Clicking on a species photo causes the page for that species to be displayed. Click on photos to descend to a species and use the browser's back button to return to a higher level.

Since this search uses your plant list, families, genera and species that have not been observed at your location are not displayed.

New Plant Search Clear Plant Searches Button

Use this button to start a new flower search at the current location and observation time. It removes the shape, color, size habitat and name search criteria.

Start New Search Start New Search Button

Click this button to start a search at a new location and time. It cancels the effect of all past searches.

Search Summary

search summary A Search Summary appears above the search results. The left column contains the search categories. The middle column is the search criteria that you have supplied. The right column is the number of species remaining after applying the search criteria.

In the example on the right the search started with 6164 wildflower species. After applying the location search the number of species was reduced to 495. Additional search criteria further reduced the number of species until just 6 species remained.

Plant Information

plant page Information about any plant displayed in the search results can be found by clicking on the plant image. A page like the one at the right will be displayed. To the right of the plant image is the image author, image license information and a link to the original image. Below that is information from the program data base such as when the flower blooms and the observed colors of the flower. Below this are statistics on the search. Different search criteria produce values that range from zero for no match to 100 for a very good match. The product of these values results in an overall score. This information is displayed in a bar graph.

Directly below the plant image is the common name, the scientific name and the family name for the plant. The genus and family names are links that start a search using the genus or family name. Placing the mouse over this area pops up a plant name box that shows additional common and scientific names.

Below the plant names are links to where more information about the plant can be found. These links are organized into an "informational" list and a "photographic" list. A number in parentheses indicates how many photographs can be expected at that link.

To the right of the links is a geographic plant distribution map. When the species has been found then that region of the map is white. When we have no record of a species being in a region the map is gray. When we have a record with the coordinates for where the species is found a blue dot is placed on the map.

If you have not set a location then you will see the whole map of Patagonia. If you have set a location the map will be zoomed-in and centered on your location. You can use the mouse to drag the map. You can get a full size map along with license information by clicking on the "Credits" link.

Below the distribution map are plots showing when the plant was observed at different elevations. For showy flowers these plots generally describe the elevation and time the flower blooms. The vertical plot on the left shows the elevations where the plant was found. The horizontal plot at the bottom shows when the plant was observed. Sometimes this plot will contain both a dark and a light plot. When this happens the light plot is for all elevations while the darker plot is for the specified elevation. The data in the plot area shows when the plant was observed at different elevations. A light red vertical line indicates the selected time. A light red horizontal line indicates the specified elevation. Gray regions indicate when the plant is unlikely to be observed.

At the bottom left is a graph showing the habitat where the plant was found. The graph is produced by a program that scans the habitat information given by plant collectors. There are 15 habitat categories that are defined as follows:
Alpine - Growing above timberline.
Aquatic - Growing in or floating in water.
Brush - Scab, chaparral, thicket, clearcut, scrub and similar terms.
Cliff - On a cliff, rock wall or similar surface.
Desert - Described as a desert, wash, arid or very dry area.
Disturbed - Along a road, railroad, burned area, vacant lot and similar places.
Epiphyte - Growing on a plant or on decaying plant material.
Forest - In a grove, stand or woods or otherwise associated with trees.
Grassland - A pasture, prairie, rangeland or steppe.
Meadow - An area described as a meadow.
Riparian - Near a stream, river, lake, seep or other wet area.
Rocky - An outcrop, scree, talus area or other rocky area.
Salt Marsh - An alkali or tidal area.
Sand - An area described as sandy or a sand dune.
Wetland - Marsh, swamp, bog, fen or wetland.

Disclaimer

This program may aid in identifying a plant or it may help you get an idea of the nature of a plant. Botanists have developed very precise methods for identifying plants that require tools and extensive training. Professional identification can only be accomplished with these tools and training.

printer output

Printing

When printing this web page only the result window is printed. When displaying plant images, 20 are placed on each page as shown to the right. Images that have not been viewed will not print. So, before printing, scroll down and view all of the images that you want to print.

Other Details

The program is written in the Python computer language. It uses HTML and forms. It is hosted on the Google App Engine. The Google map is generated using the Google Maps API v3 service. The programmer is a retired engineer who has been "flustrated" while flipping thru wildflower books. This project is sponsored by Wildflower Search, an Oregon not-for-profit corporation. Comments about this program should be directed to Steven.K.Sullivan@PatagoniaWildflowers.com

Crowdsourcing

This website is built so that people other than myself can correct entries and enter additional species. Entering this data is difficult and so far no one has decided to help with these tasks. You can investigate how this is done by logging in (upper right corner) with a Google account. But you will not be able to save data without permission from me. If you are interested in contributing to this project, please let me know.

Data Sources

Many people have taken excellent photographs of wildflowers, identified them, posted them on FlickR, Wikimedia and other sites and then designated the image in a way that has allowed it to be used in this program. Others have given this project permission to use their images. We all owe these people our thanks. The "Image Authors" button at the top of every page will show you a list of their names linked to their photos.

Plant location, elevation, habitat and observation times were obtained thru herbarium collection records. These records, in some cases going back more than a hundred years, represent the work of tens of thousands of people. These records are used by permission and, in some cases, under a Creative Commons license. The works that are derived from this information, such as the Plant Distribution Maps, are copyrighted and licensed under a Creative Commons license. The attribution for this information and the details of the license can be found at this link.